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Glossary
The following is a glossary of terms used throughout the site.
1021105 Ontario:  1021105 Ontario Corp. is a predecessor company to Kinross Gold Corporation. Kinross Gold Corporation was formed in 1993 by the amalgamation of CMP Resources Ltd., Plexus Resources and 1021105 Ontario Corporation.
 
 
Amax Gold:  Amax Gold is predecessor company of Kinross. Kinross completed the acquisition of Amax Gold in 1998, adding to its portfolio the Fort Knox Mine near Fairbanks, Alaska; a 50% interest in the Maricunga Mine in Chile; and a 50% interest in the Kubaka Mine in the Russian Far East.
 
 
Breccia:  A rock dominated with angular fragments within a finer-grained matrix.
 
 
Carbon-in-leach:  A recovery process in which a slurry of gold ore, carbon granules and cyanide are mixed together. The cyanide dissolves the gold content and the gold is absorbed on the carbon; the carbon is subsequently separated from the slurry for further gold removal.
 
 
Carbon-in-pulp:  Similar to carbon-in-leach process, but initially the slurry is subjected to cyanide leaching in separate tanks followed by carbon-in-pulp. Carbon-in-leach is a simultaneous process.
 
 
Cash flow (before changes in working capital):  Cash flow before changes in working capital is a non-GAAP measure and is defined as cash flow provided from operating activities before changes in operating assets and liabilities.
 
 
CMP Resources:  CMP Resources Ltd. is a predecessor company to Kinross Gold Corporation. Kinross Gold Corporation was formed in 1993 by the amalgamation of CMP Resources Ltd., Plexus Resources and 1021105 Ontario Corporation.
 
 
Cost of Sales per Ounce:  Cost of sales per ounce is defined as cost of sales as per the financial statements divided by the number of gold equivalent ounces sold. Unless otherwise stated, both are reduced for Kupol sales attributable to a third-party 25% shareholder.
 
 
Cyanidation:  A method of extracting gold or silver by dissolving it in a weak cyanide solution.
 
 
Dilution:  The effect of waste or low-grade ore being included unavoidably in the mined ore, lowering the recovered grade.
 
 
Doré:  Unrefined gold and silver bullion bars, which will be further refined to almost pure metal.
 
 
Falconbridge:  Falconbridge Limited, previous parent company of Falconbridge Gold Corporation.
 
 
FGC:  Falconbridge Gold Corporation, a predecessor company to Kinross Gold Corporation.
 
 
Gold equivalent:  Gold equivalent ounces include silver ounces produced and sold, converted to a gold equivalent based on a ratio of the average spot market price for the commodities for each year.

Ratios for previous years are as follows:
2008 - 58.17:1
2007 - 51.51:1
2006 - 52.28:1
 
 
Grade:  The amount of valuable metal in each tonne of ore, expressed as grams per tonne for precious metals.

Cut-off grade: is the minimum metal grade at which a tonne of rock can be processed on an economic basis.

Recovered grade: is actual metal realized by the metallurgical process and treatment of ore, based on actual experience or laboratory testing.

Reserve grade: is the estimated mass weighted average metal content of an ore body, based on reserve calculations.
 
 
Heap leaching:  A process whereby gold is extracted by “heaping” broken ore on sloping impermeable pads and repeatedly spraying the heaps with a weak cyanide solution which dissolves the gold content. The gold-laden solution is collected for gold recovery.
 
 
Hectares:  One hectare = 2.47 acres.
 
 
Kilometer:  One kilometer = 0.62 miles.
 
 
Kinam:  Kinam Gold Inc., formerly Amax Gold Inc., a Delaware corporation and an indirectly wholly owned subsidiary of Kinross Gold Corporation.
 
 
Kinross:  Kinross Gold Corporation, an Ontario corporation.
 
 
Kinross USA:  Kinross Gold U.S.A., Inc., a Nevada corporation and a 100% wholly owned subsidiary of Kinross Gold Corporation.
 
 
Meter:  One meter = 3.28 feet.
 
 
Mill:  A plant where ore is ground fine and undergoes physical or chemical treatment to extract the valuable metals.
 
 
Mineralized material:  Mineralized material is the projection of mineralization in rock based on geological evidence and assumed continuity. It may or may not be supported by sampling but is supported by geological, geochemical, geophysical or other data. This material may or may not have economically recoverable mineralization.
 
 
Mining claim:  That portion of public or private mineral lands which a party has staked or marked out in accordance with federal, provincial or state mining laws to acquire the right to explore for and exploit the minerals under the surface.
 
 
NSR:  Net smelter return (NSR) - a share of the net revenues generated from the sale of metal produced by a mine.
 
 
NERCO Companies:  NERCO DeLamar Company, NERCO Metals Inc. and Palms Mining Company collectively.
 
 
Plexus:  Plexus Resources Corporation, a predecessor company to Kinross Gold Corporation.
 
 
Ore:  Rock, generally containing metallic and non-metallic minerals that can be mined and processed at a profit.
 
 
Reclamation:  The process by which lands disturbed as a result of mining activity are reclaimed back to a beneficial land use. Reclamation activity includes the removal of buildings, equipment, machinery and other physical remnants of mining, closure of tailings impoundments, leach pads and other mine features, and contouring, covering and revegetation of waste rock piles and other disturbed areas.
 
 
Recovery:  A term used in process metallurgy to indicate the proportion of valuable material obtained in the processing of an ore. It is generally stated as a percentage of valuable metal in the ore that is recovered compared to the total valuable metal present in the ore.
 
 
Refining:  The final stage of metal production in which impurities are removed from the molten metal.
 
 
Reserves:  

"Mineral Reserve": A mineral reserve is the economically mineable part of a Measured or Indicated Mineral Resource demonstrated by at least a Preliminary Feasibility Study. This Study must include adequate information on mining, processing, metallurgical, economic and other relevant factors that demonstrate, at the time of reporting, that economic extraction can be justified. A Mineral Reserve includes diluting materials and allowances for losses that may occur when the material is mined.

"Probable Mineral Reserve": is the economically mineable part of an Indicated and, in some circumstances, a Measured Mineral Resource demonstrated by at least a Preliminary Feasibility Study. This Study must include adequate information on mining, processing, metallurgical, economic, and other relevant factors that demonstrate, at the time of reporting, that economic extraction can be justified.

"Proven Mineral Reserve": is the economically mineable part of a Measured Mineral Resource demonstrated by at least a Preliminary Feasibility Study. This Study must include adequate information on mining, processing, metallurgical, economic, and other relevant factors that demonstrate, at the time of reporting, that economic extraction is justified.

The above definitions of “mineral reserve”, “proven mineral reserve”, “probable mineral reserve”, “mineral resource”, “measured mineral resource”, and “indicated mineral resource” conform to Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (“CIM”) definitions as defined in the CIM Standards on Mineral Resources and Reserves - Definitions and Guidelines as required by National Instrument 43-101 Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects of the Canadian Securities Administrators.

 
 
Resources:  

"Mineral Resource": A mineral resource is a concentration or occurrence of diamonds, natural solid inorganic material, or natural solid fossilized organic material including base and precious metals, coal, and industrial minerals in or on the Eath's crust in such form and quantity and of such grade or quality that it has reasonable prospects for economic extraction. The location, quantity, grade, geological characteristics and continuity of a Mineral Resource are known, estimated or interpreted from specific geological evidence and knowledge.

"Inferred Mineral Resource": is that part of a Mineral Resource for which quantity and grade or quality can be estimated on the basis of geological evidence and limited sampling and reasonably assumed, but not verified, geological and grade continuity. The estimate is based on limited information and sampling gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes.

"Indicated Mineral Resource": is that part of a Mineral Resource for which quantity, grade or quality, densities, shape and physical characteristics, can be estimated with a level of confidence sufficient to allow the appropriate application of technical and economic parameters, to support mine planning and evaluation of the economic viability of the deposit. The estimate is based on detailed and reliable exploration and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes that are spaced closely enough for geological and grade continuity to be reasonable assumed.

"Measured Mineral Resource": is that part of a Mineral Resource for which quantity, grade or quality, densities, shape, and physical characteristics are so well established that they can be estimated with confidence sufficient to allow the appropriate application of technical and economic parameters, to support production planning and evaluation of the economic viability of the deposit. The estimate is based on detailed and reliable exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes that are spaced closely enough to confirm both geological and grade continuity.

The above definitions of “mineral reserve”, “proven mineral reserve”, “probable mineral reserve”, “mineral resource”, “measured mineral resource”, and “indicated mineral resource” conform to Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (“CIM”) definitions as defined in the CIM Standards on Mineral Resources and Reserves - Definitions and Guidelines as required by National Instrument 43-101, Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects, of the Canadian Securities Administrators.

 
 
Sedimentary rock:  Rocks formed from material derived generally by erosion of other rocks and laid down by a chemical or mechanical process i.e., limestone, shale and sandstone.
 
 
Stockpile:  Broken ore heaped on surface or prepared areas underground, pending treatment or shipment.
 
 
Tailings:  The material that remains after all metals considered economic have been removed from ore during milling.